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Aging weakens organs related to the endocrine system and, in turn, some of the changes due to aging occur precisely because of marked decreases in certain hormones. The hormones which diminish most with age are growth hormone (GH), melatonin, and sexual hormones. The decline of these latter may be abrupt (estrogen in women) or gradual (testosterone in men). Aging involves an increase in the oxidative metabolic processes and a consequent accumulation of free radicals in the tissues. It is precisely certain hormones which diminish with age that have important effects on these free radicals. That is why this reduction is accompanied by an increase of indicator parameters for inflammation or oxidative stress.

The administration of physiological amounts of growth hormone brings about marked improvements in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Melatonin is a natural compound produced by all organisms (animals and plants) which keeps free radicals and inflammation in check, slows neurodegeneration and improves mitochondrial capacity. Nowadays, the administration of melatonin is the treatment of choice for anti-aging therapy. Anti-aging roles of nutrition and physical exercise

In order to obtain good functional longevity, it is essential to maintain good health, and this is determined by genetics (approximately 25%) and lifestyle (75%). Therefore, regardless of inherited genes, lifestyle can help to achieve and maintain that healthy longevity. Evaluating the state of health may indicate the speed of aging, and whether lifestyle factors such as proper nutrition, getting adequate physical and mental exercise, and a good "attitude" toward stressful situations, are effective for maintaining health and will thus bring about a long and healthy longevity.