Alopecia is a very frequent pathology. It can become a major problem for the patient, entailing psychological and social complications, and even affect quality of life.
The causes of alopecia are varied, and the dermatologist's first task is to differentiate scarring alopecia from the non-scarring sort. It is necessary to conduct a correct and detailed patient history. Research on family history, thyroid or autoimmune disease, anemia, current or previous medications, gynecological history in the case of women, food, diet, etc.
We study the overall appearance of the scalp, in addition to making a detailed exploration to arrive at a clear diagnosis of the pathology.
a) Androgenetic Alopecia
Androgenetic alopecia is a progressive thinning of hair in those individuals genetically predisposed, whether men or women (also affected). This is one of the most frequent causes of alopecia. The cause of hair loss in these patients is due to a hormone - dihydrotestosterone - which acts on susceptible hair follicles and slowly and progressively diminishes them until they are destroyed, with a consequent loss of hair.
There are currently many treatments we can offer in our aesthetic medicine. section As for dermatological treatment we focus in compounds for topical use whose efficacy has been scientifically proven, and oral preparations which inhibit the hormone responsible for hair loss in these patients.
b) Alopecia Areata
The most frequent clinical form of alopecia areata is hair loss in circular spots either on the scalp or, for males, the area of the beard, although it may be located on any part of the body's surface. It is usually a hereditary disorder and often associated with other autoimmune processes, whose diagnosis should be ruled out pending analysis.
We will observe round or oval alopecia spots, and sometimes patients exhibit nail dystrophies (nail pitting, small dimples in the nail plate), suggesting a bad prognosis.
Stress is not the cause but is a trigger ("awakening the illness") of hair loss, and should thus be identified and addressed for a better clinical outcome.
The prognosis is usually good and most patients manage to repopulate the areas of alopecia.